J Perinatol. 2013 Dec; 33(12): 944–949.
G G Konduri,1,*G M Sokol,2K P Van Meurs,3J Singer,4N Ambalavanan,5T Lee,4 and A Solimano6, for the Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group



We conducted a post-hoc analysis of early inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-randomized controlled trial data to identify associations pertinent to the management of moderate hypoxic respiratory failure in term/late preterm infants.

Study design:

Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for the progression of respiratory failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/death.


Among the 299 enrolled infants, oxygenation index (OI) <20 at enrollment (odds ratio 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.27 to 0.97) and surfactant use before randomization (odds ratio 0.47, CI 0.24 to 0.91) were associated with decreased ECMO/death rates. Early surfactant use for respiratory distress syndrome, perinatal aspiration syndrome and pneumonia/sepsis was associated with lower risk of ECMO/death (P<0.001). Early iNO (OI 15 to 25) decreased the progression of respiratory failure to OI >30 (P=0.002) and to composite outcome of OI >30 or ECMO/death (P=0.02).


This post-hoc analysis suggests that early use of surfactant and iNO in moderate respiratory failure is associated with improved outcomes.

Keywords: newborn, lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, PPHN, ECMO

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