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Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014; 9: 28.

Abstract

Background

Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults. We present herein the first series describing the specificities of idiopathic chronic (ICEP) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP and IAEP in children that were retrieved from French Reference Centers for rare pediatric lung diseases.

Results

Five cases of pediatric ICEP were identified. Corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy dramatically improved the outcome in three cases. The remaining two cases had a persistent interstitial pattern with progressive development of cystic airspace lesions. Three cases of IAEP in adolescents were reported, with one requiring four days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Conclusion

ICEP is a rare disease with a polymorphic clinical presentation in children. We identified patients with persistent interstitial patterns progressing to cystic airspace regions, for which the boundaries with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are difficult to establish. We therefore propose a specific pediatric definition and classification algorithm. IAEP in children remains an inflammatory reaction of the lung to an acute toxic exposure, mainly tobacco, as in adults. International studies are required to comprehensively assess the various clinical forms of the disease as well as the appropriate therapeutic regimens.

Keywords: Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, Child, Eosinophilic lung disease, Interstitial lung disease

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